The Schaeffler concept vehicles CO2ncept-10%, Schaeffler Hybrid and ACTIVeDRIVE show the wide-ranging spectrum of modern automotive engineering and give a perspective on the extensive Schaeffler product portfolio.
With the CO2ncept-10%, Schaeffler gives an overview of detailed solutions that are close to production status, which clearly show the striking potential for optimization in drive trains based on the internal combustion engine.
The Schaeffler Hybrid is a ideas concept allowing an illustrative comparison of various hybrid configurations. These include the Schaeffler in-hub motors known as the eWheel Drive.
ACTIVeDRIVE is an electric vehicle featuring the innovative eDifferential on both axles.
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2011-09-13 | 000-003-040 DE-EN
SCHAEFFLER GMBH, HERZOGENAURACH
The challenges faced by automobility today span from optimizing automobiles with classic drive trains and internal combustion engines via numerous hybrid solutions right up to electric mobility. Schaeffler’s concept vehicles CO2ncept-10%, Schaeffler Hybrid and ACTIVeDRIVE show the company’s diverse approach to modern automobility and provide an insight into Schaeffler’s extremely wide product range.
CO2ncept-10% is a vehicle that presents a range of optimization options in vehicles with internal combustion engines that can be implemented in a short space of time. The Schaeffler Hybrid presents various hybrid solutions and compares various operating modes. The ACTIVeDRIVE, is an all-electric vehicle (BEV or battery electric vehicle). “Furthermore, all three of these ‘cars full of ideas’ function as test platforms for realistic testing of various components and systems”, says Prof. Peter Gutzmer, Chief Technical Officer at Schaeffler.
ACTIVeDRIVE – an innovative and dynamic electric vehicle
The main innovation of Schaeffler’s ACTIVeDRIVE, which is based on a Škoda Octavia Scout, is the active electric differential (eDifferential) mounted on the front and rear axle. This component combines an electric drive with the option of controlling the drive power in each wheel individually. This facilitates torque vectoring (distribution of torque between the right and left wheels), which is beneficial for driving dynamics, safety and comfort. “The eDifferential permits intervention in driving dynamics through selective power supply instead of through braking intervention and thus power reduction as is the case with ESP. The active electric differential significantly improves the transmission of force when driving on surfaces with varying frictional values. It also supports the steering system and has a positive effect on the driving dynamics, safety and driving comfort. In addition, using two eDifferentials enables the longitudinal distribution of drive torques”, says Prof. Gutzmer. Actively distributing the drive torque in both the transverse and longitudinal directions makes the eDifferential an ideal platform for innovative driving dynamics control. The solution demonstrated in the ACTIVeDRIVE makes Schaeffler a pioneer of such electric concepts in one vehicle drive. “Accordingly, the potential range of applications for the eDifferential spans from extremely-dynamic sports cars and vehicles in conventional automobile categories right up to agricultural machinery”, explains Dr. Tomas Smetana, Head of Advance Development in Transmissions Systems at Schaeffler Automotive.
The eDifferential integrates two water-cooled permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) of different dimensions, a planetary gear, a transmission for active torque distribution and, as a key element, a Schaeffler lightweight differential. The electric drives are manufactured by Schaeffler brand IDAM. The larger up to 105 kW and 170 Nm PMSM provides the drive. The second PMSM, which regulates the distribution of torque, must only supply 5 kW of power in order to generate a difference in torque on the axle of up to 2000 Nm. The other innovations incorporated in the ACTIVeDRIVE are an integrated electromechanical parking lock, a new force-feed lubrication system without an oil pump for the transmission, planet carriers of sheet metal and various high-speed bearing solutions with optimized friction characteristics. The electronic control system is manufactured by AFT and is therefore also a Schaeffler product.
Due to the use of two active electric differentials, the concept vehicle has an overall output of up to 210 kW and features four-wheel drive. Li-ion batteries located in the propshaft tunnel and in front of the rear axle with a capacity of 18 kWh function as energy stores. Thanks to its performance and traction capacity, the test platform, which weighs 1,900 kilograms, accelerates from 0 to 100 km/h in 8.5 seconds. The vehicle features electronic top speed regulation at 150 km/h. The vehicle’s range in this configuration is up to 100 kilometers.
Schaeffler Hybrid – presenting a wide range of hybrid solutions
The Schaeffler Hybrid is an advance development project – a ‘car full of ideas’ that facilitates a practical comparison of the various options available in electric mobility. It demonstrates various vehicle configurations and driving conditions. This means the Schaeffler Hybrid not only has a volume-produced combustion engine from a basic vehicle, but also has a central electric motor and two wheel hub motors.
“Presenting various concepts with informative comparisons as well as realistic testing played a decisive role in the implementation of the Schaeffler Hybrid”, says Prof. Peter Gutzmer, Member of the Executive Management Board responsible for technical development at Schaeffler. Accordingly, the various elements can each be switched on and off and incorporate a wide range of various driving conditions. These options range from classic operation using a combustion engine, operation as a parallel hybrid or serial hybrid to operation using the electric motor only.
The combustion engine can power the vehicle and be coupled for use as a range extender. An automated manual transmission increases the options available. The transmission naturally incorporates clutch products specially matched to the requirements of hybrid vehicles from the Schaeffler brand LuK. The energy store, which is a 16 kWh lithium-ion battery (400 V, 400 A), is charged by means of energy recovery, the range extender as well as via an external power supply (plug-in hybrid). “Another important aspect of this advance development project are the networked development activities of the Schaeffler brands”, says Prof. Peter Gutzmer. Specifically, these are INA, LuK, FAG as well as IDAM and AFT.
The central unit is flange located to the automated manual transmission by means of a toothed chain and drives the front wheels. The unit comprises a liquid-cooled 50 kW and 95 Nm electric motor that was designed and manufactured by Schaeffler subsidiary IDAM. eWheel Drive is the name that has been given to the wheel hub motors developed by Schaeffler. The second-generation motors mounted in the Schaeffler Hybrid have an output of around 70 kW each and torque of around 700 Nm. Schaeffler profits from its profound expertise in the field of wheel bearings and direct drive technology during the design and manufacture of these high-performance components. Accordingly, these wheel hub motors form a compact unit that integrates wheel bearing, drive and brake. The advantage of these drive units is the fact that they can be integrated in an existing vehicle platform without making any major changes to the vehicle architecture. In addition, the eWheel Drive from Schaeffler is already making a convincing case due to its appealing torque development as well as a remarkably low noise level.
“The “Schaeffler Hybrid” will not go into volume production”, says Prof. Peter Gutzmer, “rather it serves as a vehicle of ideas. For example, with the ‘CO2ncept-10%’ based on a Porsche Cayenne, we have successfully demonstrated advantages in fuel consumption and emissions by reducing friction in the drive train. With the SchaefflerHybrid, we want to demonstrate that Schaeffler takes a holistic approach to mobility and that it is giving serious consideration to innovative products for e-mobility solutions.”
Along with the components shown in the Schaeffler Hybrid, Schaeffler’s range of products tailored to the requirements of hybrid vehicles and electric mobility includes, amongst others, hybrid clutches (as used in high-end hybrid SUVs), electromechanical chassis and steering components, as well as various differentials. These differentials include the space-saving lightweight differential and the eDifferential in the ACTIVeDRIVE.
CO2ncept-10% demonstrates potential for optimization in drive trains with internal combustion engines
The CO2ncept-10% vehicle is a joint advance development project implemented by Porsche and Schaeffler that has achieved a total reduction in fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of 10 % by using new and optimized components. The concept was first presented at the end of 2009 during the “Friction Reduction in the Powertrain” congress, which was supported by Schaeffler.
The CO2ncept-10% is a CO2 demonstration vehicle based on a Porsche Cayenne with a V8 engine. Various new and optimized proven components from Schaeffler’s product range are used in this vehicle in the drive train and chassis that significantly reduce the fuel consumption compared with a volume-produced vehicle. Schaeffler was responsible for designing and verifying the individual components in this joint advance development project. Porsche was in charge of system coordination and validation for the entire vehicle. All in all, the concept vehicle generates savings of ten percent in fuel consumption. This has been proven not only in theory (using complex simulation calculations) but also in practice by Porsche during sophisticated test stand runs. The calculations were based on the standardized NEDC (New European Driving Cycle).
The engine is responsible for 5.8% of the reduction in fuel consumption and the CO2 emissions associated with this. The main proportion of this – 4.1% – was implemented by modifying the VarioCam Plus valve control system by replacing the hydraulic camshaft phasing unit with an electromechanical system and by using optimized switchable tappets on the inlet side. An additional 1.7% was realized by the minimized frictional power by optimizing the components in the valve, belt and chain drive systems.
A further 1.1% reduction in fuel consumption is achieved by using double row angular contact ball bearings in the front and rear differentials. These so-called TwinTandem bearings replace the tapered roller bearings previously used and significantly reduce the frictional resistance compared with conventional volume-produced transmissions by 35% on the front axle final drive unit and by 42% on the rear axle final drive unit.
Savings in fuel consumption can also be made in the chassis, since a cut of 3.2% can be generated by replacing the hydraulic roll stabilizer with an electromechanical unit and by using smooth-running wheel bearings. “As is the case with camshaft phasing units, components actuated electrically make a significant contribution 12 in that they only require energy when they are actually used”, explains Dr. Robert Plank, Head of Corporate Engineering at Schaeffler. “The pumps in hydraulic systems, on the other hand, must always provide hydraulic pressure and therefore require greater amounts of energy.”
“This project is a good example of the successful cooperation between automobile manufacturers and suppliers. Networking in this way reduces development times, prevents costly redundancies and makes an important contribution to competitiveness”, says Dr. Robert Plank. “CO2ncept-10% is impressive proof of additional potential for optimization in a system close to volume-production standards. However, this is not the end of the line. CO2ncept-10% is the sum of the individual components. And these are only some of the components that are part of Schaeffler’s product range that enable comparable optimizations to be made in terms of energy efficiency in other vehicles.”